This is a patent infringement case about an invention for editing custom XML, a computer language. The owner of the patent, i4i Limited Partnership (“i4i”), brought suit against Microsoft Corporation (“Microsoft”), alleging that the custom XML editor in certain versions of Microsoft Word (“Word”), Microsoft’s word-processing software, infringed i4i’s patent. After a seven-day trial, the jury found Microsoft liable for willful infringement. The jury rejected Microsoft’s argument that the patent was invalid, and awarded $200 million in damages to i4i. The district court denied Microsoft’s motions for judgment as a matter of law and motions for a new trial, finding that Microsoft had waived its right to challenge, among other things, the validity of the patent based on all but one piece of prior art and the sufficiency of the evidence supporting the jury’s damage award. Although statutorily authorized to triple the jury’s damages award because of Microsoft’s willful infringement, the district court awarded only $40 million in additional damages. It also granted i4i’s motion for a permanent injunction. This injunction, which this court stayed pending the outcome of this appeal, is narrow. i4i Ltd. v. Microsoft Corp., No. 2009-1504 (Fed. Cir. Sept. 3, 2009). It does not affect copies of Word sold or licensed before the injunction goes into effect. Thus, users who bought or licensed Word before the injunction becomes effective will still be able to use the infringing custom XML editor, and receive technical support from Microsoft. After its effective date, the injunction prohibits Microsoft from selling, offering to sell, importing, or using copies of Word with the infringing custom XML editor. Microsoft is also prohibited from instructing or assisting new customers in the custom XML editor’s use.
On appeal, Microsoft challenges the jury verdict and injunction on multiple grounds. Because this case went to trial and we are in large part reviewing what the jury found, our review is limited and deferential. We affirm the issuance of the permanent injunction, though we modify its effective date to accord with the evidence. In all other respects, we affirm for the reasons set forth below.